بررسی الگو، ساز و کار تشکیل و اثرات گرد وغبار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 مرکز تحقیقات آلودگی هوا، پژوهشکده محیط زیست، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران

3 مرکز سلامت محیط و کار، وزارت بهداشت درمان و آموزش پزشکی، تهران

4 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، تهران

5 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی اقلیم شناسی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد

چکیده

گرد وغباراثرات مضری بر سلامت و اقتصاد جامعه و همچنین تغییر اقلیم دارند. شناخت ماهیت، منشاء و اثرات ریز گردها در تعیین روشهای کنترل آن نقش بسزایی دارد. عوامل ایجاد کننده توفانهای گرد و خاک، تقسیم بندی آن، پارامترهای تشدید کننده و منشاء ایجاد توفانهای گرد و خاک در مقیاس جهانی، خاورمیانه و ایران، اثرات توفانهای گرد و غباری بر محیط زیست، سلامتی، اقتصاد در این مقاله مورد بحث و بررسی قرار گرفته است. این تحقیق مروری است بر تاثیر گرد وغبار با جستجوی کلمات کلیدی توفان گرد و خاک، اثرات زیست محیطی، اثرات سلامت، کنترل کیفی هوا و حوادث مرتبط با گرد و خاک در خاورمیانه از سال 2000 تا 2014 است و از 69 مقاله مرتبط استفاده شده است. طبق بررسی های بعمل آمده ذرات معلق تولید کننده گرد وغبار تا ارتفاع 6 کیلومتر و بیشتر صعود و تا مسافت 20000 کیلومتر انتقال یافته و دید افقی را به  1000 متر و در بعضی موارد صفر کاهش می‌دهند. غبار جوی مانع از نفوذ نور خورشید و کاهش تولیدات کشاورزی گردیده و منجر به افزایش بیماریهایی از جمله مننژیت، تب دره، آسم، بیماریهای ویروسی، صدمه به سلولهای پوست و ریه می‌گردد. به ازای افزایش هر 10 میکروگرم در متر مکعب در غلظت ذرات معلق کوچکتر از 10 میکرون در طی وقوع پدیده گرد و غبار، بین 5/0 الی 1 درصد میزان مرگ و میر افزایش می یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation patterns, formation mechanisms and impacts of dust haze

نویسندگان [English]

  • abbas shahsavani 1
  • kazem nadafi 2
  • maryam yarahmadi 3
  • majid kermani 4
  • elham yarahmadi 5
چکیده [English]

Dust storm is an atmospheric phenomenon having adverse effects on the environment. These storms can have detrimental effects on economy and health of societies and create climate changes. Understanding the nature, origin, and effects of dust storms is important in determining their appropriate mitigation measures. In this review article, factors causing the occurrence of dust storms and their effects on environment, health, and economy as well as methods for locating and controlling them are discussed. This review article was conducted on various aspects of dust storms through internet and library search. Key words like Dust storm, environmental impacts, health, Air Quality، the Middle Eastern Dust event، were used to search for articles and publications in various databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, Springer, Magiran, and Iran Medex between 2014 and 2000. Totally, 200 articles were collected, 69 of which were chosen based on their relevance. Dust particles ascend as high as 6 kilometers and spread to 6000 kilometer across the surface, which reduces the horizontal vision to 103 to 104 meters. Atmospheric dust blocks the sun light and can also cause respiratory diseases, including meningitis and Rift Valley fever and asthma and viral diseases, and damage to the DNA skin and lung cells are. Increased to 10 micrograms per cubic meter in the concentration of particles smaller than 10 microns (PM10) at the time the dust phenomenon, the mortality rate of 0.5- 1 percent increase.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dust Storm
  • Iran
  • Air Quality
  • Health effects
  • environmental impacts
  • Ahvaz
  • Haze

 

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